Scientific Tree invites all the Agriculture and Horticulture Scientists across the nations to submit their Abstracts before the deadline ends. Kindly submit your abstract. There are altogether 21 sessions on Ariculture and Horticulture . Choose your calling and please submit your abstract relevant to the conference or session.
Agricultural Engineering deals with agricultural activities such as planning, supervising and managing the building of dairy effluent schemes, irrigation, drainage, flood water control systems, performing environmental impact assessments, agricultural product processing and interpret research results and implement relevant practices. Some of the agricultural engineers involve in manufacturing of agricultural machinery, equipment, processing technology, and structures for housing livestock and storing crops. Agricultural engineers also work in production, sales, management, research and development, or applied science. Agricultural engineers engage themselves in fields like food engineering and the processing of agricultural products; surveying and land profiling; soil management and conservation, including erosion and erosion control seeding, tillage, harvesting, and processing of crops; livestock production, including poultry, fish, and dairy animals, waste management, including animal waste, agricultural residues, and fertilizer runoff; and climatology and atmospheric science etc.
Agriculture & Food Security address the challenges of global food security. It deals with food security research, sustainable agriculture and food systems, nutritional insecurity, agricultural, ecological, environmental, nutritional, and socio-economic sciences, public health and policy. Agriculture and food security also deals with genetics and systems ecology; animal husbandry, fisheries and plant science; biodiversity, climatology and abiotic stresses; food technology and balancing agricultural outputs across food, feed, fibre and fuel; strategies for implementation of new policies and practices; public health related to food and nutritional security. Agriculture & Food Security and its recent advances have far reaching implications for nations across the world. This session discusses about agriculture and food security, its research advances and its implications to wider community of farmers and general public.
Plant Science deals with the subject of conventional large-scale farming, organic agriculture, new sustainable production practices, medicinal plants, greenhouse management, and turf and lawn management. Plant science mainly focuses on field crops, fruits and vegetables, recreational and ornamental plants, study of cropping systems, plant taxonomy of species, and production practices suitable for a cold-weather climate and also deals with plant disease, agricultural production, pest control issues and practices, and plant systems etc. This session discusses more about the recent developments in plant science such as horticulture and plant breeding like nurseries and greenhouses; plant research and development, food and plant production, biotechnology, landscape restoration.
Agricultural biotechnology is a subfield of agricultural science which involves the use of scientific tools and techniques including genetic engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and tissue culture, to modify living organisms: plants, animals, and microorganisms. Desired traits are exported from a particular species of crop to an entirely different species. These transgene crops possess desirable characteristics in terms of flavor, color of flowers, growth rate, size of harvested products and resistance to diseases and pests. Farmers have manipulated plants and animals through selective breeding for tens of thousands of years in order to create desired traits. In the 20th century, a surge in technology resulted in an increase in agricultural biotechnology through the selection of traits like increased yield, pest resistance, drought resistance, and herbicide resistance. This session discusses more about agricultural biotechnology and the recent developments in its research field.
The environmental impact of agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them; and how those effects can be traced back to those practices. The environmental impact of agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. The environmental impact depends on the production practices of the system used by farmers. The connection between emissions into the environment and the farming system is indirect as it also depends on other climate variables such as rainfall and temperature. The environmental impact of agriculture involves a variety of factors from the soil, to water, the air, animal and soil variety, people, plants, and the food itself. Some of the environmental issues that are related to agriculture are climate change, deforestation, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste. This session discusses more about environmental impact on agriculture.
Agronomy and Crop Science deal with the challenges in agricultural problems such as drought, chemical constraints, extreme temperatures, flooding and oxidative stress, mineral deficiency and toxicity stress. It further focuses on increasing crop yields while ensuring the safety of food supplies. Agronomy and crop science also focuses on plants such as food and cash crops like grain and seed nutrition; and as well as increasing the amount and quality of food. It also strives to improve crop and soil conditions in cost effective and environmentally sound ways. Agronomy and Crop Science include the studies in subfields like soil chemistry, genetics, entomology, plant physiology, plant breeding and soil fertility, agroecology, turf grass management, seed production or pest management. This session discusses more on the latest developments in agronomy and crop science.
Fertilizers and Pesticides both have definite pros and cons associated with their use. Both types of chemical tend to increase yields, and thus make a significant difference in food production, particularly in countries that struggle periodically with famines. On the other hand, they both can cause water pollution when erosion carries the chemicals off of farms along with eroded soils after each rainfall. There is also concern by some authorities that pesticides pose a risk, not only to non-target animal and plant species, but to humans as well. There is no doubt that fertilizers increase yields of crops around the world. Norman Borlaug, the father of the 1960s Green Revolution, which vastly expanded food production and helped stave off world hunger has argued that modern farming, including the use of fertilizers and herbicides double or triple food production. This session discusses more about the latest developments in fertilizers and pesticides.
Soil science deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber. Soil science is also a constituent of the field of agronomy and is thus also described as soil agronomy. Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth and to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality. The soil fertility should be able to supply essential plant nutrients and water in adequate amounts and proportions for plant growth and reproduction; and the absence of toxic substances which may inhibit plant growth. Soil fertility should have a sufficient soil depth for adequate root growth and water retention. This session discusses the latest developments in soil science and soil fertility.
Greenhouse and Horticulture developed techniques to adapt food crops to the right environment through breeding and selecting plants resistant to drought and to shorter production cycles and adjust to the environment surrounding the plants. Plant cultivation is influenced by various factors such as soil quality, water availability, and climatic conditions. The use of windbreaks, mulches, plant or row covers, and cold frames are part of greenhouse and horticulture. Some types of garden frames like hotbeds, heated frames may be heated by artificial means, but do not actually provide for any control of the environment. The only method of food crop production that makes use of control of the environment is greenhouse production. With the use of a greenhouse it is possible to cultivate food-producing plants in locations and at times when climatic conditions would adversely affect them or even prevent them from growing. This session discusses the latest techniques in greenhouse and horticulture.
Nutrients in food are necessary for the healthy growth of human beings. Food we take consists of B Vitamins, Calcium, Carbohydrates, Cholesterol, Fat, Fiber, Folic Acid, Incomplete Proteins, Iron, Niacin, Protein, Riboflavin, Saturated Fats, Sodium Thiamin, Unsaturated Fats, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and many more. Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, anemia, scurvy, preterm birth, stillbirth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. This session discusses more about food and nutrients and its effects on human beings.
Food Nanotechnology improvises food processes that use enzymes to confer nutrition and health benefits. For instance, enzymes are added to food to hydrolyze anti-nutritive components to increase the bio-availability of essential nutrients such as minerals and vitamins. To make these enzymes highly active, long-lived and cost-effective, nanomaterials can be used to provide superior enzyme-support systems due to their large surface-to-volume ratios compared to traditional macroscale support materials. The study of food nanotechnology addresses the potential applications of nanotechnology for functional foods and nutraceuticals by applying new concepts and engineering approaches involved in nanomaterials to target the delivery of bioactive compounds and micronutrients. Nanomaterials allow better encapsulation and release efficiency of the active food ingredients, the development of nano-emulsions, liposomes, micelles, biopolymer complexes and cubosomes to improve properties for bioactive compounds protection, controlled delivery systems, and food matrix integration. This session discusses more about food nanotechnology.
Organic farming is an agricultural system originated in early 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances. For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and Ivermectin. This session discusses organic farming having several advantages such as sustainability, openness, self-sufficiency, independence, health, food security, and food safety.
Agricultural Waste Management deals with the disposing of agricultural waste material to improve crop production by increasing the supply of nutrients in soils where the material is applied. Manure is the excrement of livestock and poultry, and food-processing waste is damaged fruit and vegetables and the peelings, stems, leaves, pits, and soil particles removed in food preparation. The manure and food-processing waste are solid, slurry, or liquid. A high content of nitrogen limits the application rate. Toxic or otherwise dangerous wastes, such as those mixed with the lye used in food processing, are not considered in the ratings. Application of sewage sludge not only disposes of waste material but also can improve crop production by increasing the supply of nutrients in the soils where the material is applied. This session discusses more about the latest techniques in agricultural waste management.
Horticultural Therapy designs appealing aesthetics in plants which elicit feelings of inner peace generating positive emotions towards a meaningful appreciation of life. Horticulture therapists create therapeutic gardens with plant-dominated environment purposefully designed to facilitate interaction with the healing elements of nature. There are many sub-types of therapeutic gardens which include healing gardens, enabling gardens, rehabilitation gardens, and restorative gardens. Horticultural therapy helps improve memory, cognitive abilities, task initiation, language skills, and socialization. In physical rehabilitation, horticultural therapy helps strengthen muscles and improve coordination, balance, and endurance. Horticultural therapists are professionals with specific education, training, and credentials in the use of horticultural for therapy and rehabilitation. This session discusses many innovative techniques in creating therapeutic gardens which help people regain their health and inner peace.
Agricultural Microbiology deals with the study of plant-associated microbes, plant and animal diseases. Agricultural microbiology deals with soil fertility such as microbial degradation of organic matter and soil nutrient transformations. It further addresses problems in agricultural practices caused by lack of biodiversity in microbial communities. The study of microbial strains relevant to agricultural applications is useful in factors such as soil nutrients, plant-pathogen resistance, crop robustness, fertilization uptake efficiency, and more. The many symbiotic relationships between plants and microbes ultimately exploits for greater food production necessary to feed the expanding human populace. In addition to safer farming techniques for the sake of minimizing ecological disruption, this session discusses the latest trends in agriculture microbiology.
Crop Protection and Entomology deal with the study of practice of managing plant diseases, weeds and other pests both vertebrate and invertebrate that damage agricultural crops and forestry. The crop plants get damaged by insects, birds, rodents, bacteria, etc. The crop protection techniques include pesticide-based approaches such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides; biological pest control approaches such as cover crops, trap crops and beetle banks; barrier-based approaches like agrotextiles and bird netting; animal psychology-based approaches such as bird scares; biotechnology-based approaches such as plant breeding and genetic modification; plant protection research studies insect, disease, and weed pests that threaten our food supply and the environment. This session discusses about the latest developments in crop protection and entomology.
Current Trends and Innovations in Agriculture Development include technologies which reduce carbon footprint in agriculture as against the climate challenges. Technologies which enhance the health and yield of crops and herds are included as these reduce waste from the industry and alleviate pressure to convert native land into agricultural fields. Other technologies include are land and resource management practices to decrease or eliminate nutrient drain and erosion of soils such that the land may sustain cultivable yields indefinitely. Sustainability in crop farming focuses on increasing yields as well as improving resilience and persistence of crops. This session discusses about crop resilience describes the capacity of the plant to buffer shocks and stresses while persistence describes the ability of arable land to sustain a crop rotation indefinitely without diminishing yields.
Agricultural Production Systems are undergoing marked changes due to rising consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Mixed-methods approach combines qualitative and quantitative data to develop and simulate a system dynamics model that explores the systemic interaction of these drivers on the economic, environmental and social sustainability of agricultural production. There is every need to develop sustainable production systems that address societal concerns for environmental impacts and nutritional value while maintaining an economically feasible production system for farmers. This session discusses the five feasible goals to address the sustainable production systems which include supplying human needs, enhancing the environment and natural resource base, increasing efficiency of resource use, improving economic viability of farming, and enhancing quality of life for producers and society.
Agroforestry is gaining momentum at a time when the demand is increasing for sustainable natural resource management, environmental-friendly development approaches, landscape enhancement, integrated land use management, sustainable development are all areas in which agroforestry can make a positive contribution. Agroforestry takes several forms and is attracting growing interest across the world, and stakeholders are incorporating agroforestry activities in their land management and developing projects. They view it as a concrete tool for the sustainable development of rural land resources. There are many options when choosing which trees a forester should consider out of many choices such as fertilizer trees considered to be good for land regeneration, soil health, and food security; fruit trees which bears fruit and provides nutrition; fodder trees which improves smallholder livestock production; and medicinal trees which provides medicines.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are now grown in sequence on the same land in the same year around the world to meet the food demand of a rapidly growing human population. The challenges in rice and wheat research are to understand crop responses to the required combination of practices. As such management systems can be devised for high and sustainable combined yield. The repeated transitions from anaerobic to aerobic and vice versa affect soil structure, nutrient relations, the growth of the component crops, and their associated pests and diseases. Rice and wheat research should concentrate on soil, water and nutrient management strategies including reduced tillage and use of raised beds, that avoid the deleterious effects of puddling on soil structure and fertility, improve water and nutrient-use efficiencies to increase crop productivity of both rice and wheat.
Pesticides are chemical preparations used to kill fungal or animal pests. Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species because they are sprayed across entire agricultural fields rather than target specifics. Pesticides cover a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators and others. All these pesticides contributed greatly to pest control and agricultural output. Ideally a pesticide must be lethal to target pests, but not to target non-target species including man. Unfortunately, this is not the case, so the controversy of use and abuse of pesticides has surfaced. The rampant use of these chemicals has played havoc with human and other life forms. This session discusses more about the latest developments in pesticides and its effects having impact on agriculture, horticulture, floriculture, entomology and on human beings.